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By Andras Sobester, Alexander I J Forrester

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Example text

These are, however, still somewhat difficult to link directly to outer mould line geometry variables, so another level is required. Sometimes these lower level variables emerge from simple analytical models of the second-tier variables. 22) where ???? is propulsive efficiency, c is specific fuel consumption, CL is the lift coefficient and Wi and Wf are aircraft weights at the beginning and the end of the cruise segment respectively. We can immediately see a term there that makes an ideal optimization objective for the aerodynamic designer: CL ∕CD .

14. There are numerous advantages to such an installation (see Powell et al. (2012) for a comprehensive list), key amongst which is that the wing shields the broadband fan noise of the engine from communities on the ground. The question arises as to where exactly above the wing would one position the nacelle. 14. There are a number of possible objective functions we could consider here. For the purposes of this example, let us look at three: overall airframe drag CD , noise shielding Δ and DC(60), a measure of the pressure distortion coefficient at the fan face, expressing the contrast between the mean total pressure over a 60◦ sector and the mean total pressure across the entire fan face.

Stage 2: A ‘Generalized Circle’ Time to make the geometry more flexible. We might ask: what gains could we make on the cross-sectional area (a surrogate, in essence, for the pressure drag of the fuselage) at the cost of sacrificing some of the structural advantages of a circle? 17: we make the two exponents N1 and N2 free to vary, as well as adding the ‘sideways stretch’ variable C. As before, we also have the uniform scaling variable and the quasi-separable vertical adjustment variable. This is a slightly more serious optimization challenge, and we used the pattern search of Nelder and Mead (1965) to accomplish it.

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Aircraft Aerodynamic. Design Geometry and Optimization by Andras Sobester, Alexander I J Forrester

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