By Hayne W. Reese (Ed.)
This quantity, one in a sequence, bargains with the constitution of developmental concept, recursive structures, kid's iconic realism, the position of cognition in figuring out gender results, the improvement of processing pace in adolescence and formative years and extra.
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Extra info for Advances in Child Development and Behavior, Vol. 6
How do these two sources of motivation combine to produce learning and performance in children? In general two parallel lines of research have emerged in the work of Gewirtz, Stevenson, and others who have used constant verbal rewards to study determinants of drive variation in performance, and in the efforts of Siegel, the author, and others who have varied material rewards with drive fluctuating at random to investigate the consequences of incentive magnitude upon two-choice selective learning.
A relatively impersonal machine, the apparatus, delivers discriminanda and manipulanda which constitute stimulus materials to be learned in some way. Material rewards constitute discriminanda and manipulanda which lend themselves to machine delivery, and they probably also are enhanced by novelty value under these circumstances. We have already commented on the awkwardness of verbal reward delivery in five-choice selective learning. Yet even a casual consideration of child training procedures shows that verbal rewards are immensely more common and more economical in daily dispensation.
W. Spence ( 1956), however, presented a classical conditioning model by which the anticipatory goal reaction, rp, develops incentive properties from association of cues in the goal box to reward, working back through stimulus generalization to the start in the instrumental sequence. Stillings, Allen, and Estes ( 1968) showed noncontingent classical conditioning between monetary reward magnitude and light-signal cues leading to a small, but significant inverse relationship between incentive value and reaction time measures in college subjects.
Advances in Child Development and Behavior, Vol. 6 by Hayne W. Reese (Ed.)